Trabajos de Titulación - Educación inicial

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  • Ítem
    Acceso Abierto
    “La grafomotricidad para el desarrollo de la preescritura en niños de 4 a 5 años”
    (Universidad Católica de Cuenca., 2024) Jara Peñaloza, Joseline Andrea; Trelles Astudillo, Hilda Josefina; 0150893451
    Preschool programs often lack sufficient focus on developing graphomotor skills at the early level, hindering prewriting learning. Graphomotor skills are fundamental in preparing 4- to 5-year-old children for formal writing. During this crucial prewriting phase, graphomotor activities contribute to developing fine motor skills, visual-motor coordination, and visual perception. This study aimed to analyze the research findings on the impact of graphomotor skills on prewriting development in 4- to 5-year-old children. A search for information on scientific articles and doctoral and master's theses published in high-impact journals was conducted in the digital database of the Catholic University of Cuenca, in the repositories Scopus, Redalyc, Dialnet, SciELO, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Fifteen articles were identified, and nine were selected, from which a thorough analysis was made. The result showed that children who engage in activities designed to enhance graphomotor skills reached outstanding achievement in both graphomotor skills and prewriting, and progress was evidenced in graphomotor skills linked to prewriting. Conclusions: Among the main precursor areas for prewriting is the motor domain, specifically visual-motor coordination and fine motor skills. These skills enable children to manipulate the graphic instrument to produce controlled strokes essential for prewriting tasks. Graphomotor skills focus on developing and improving the fine motor skills and visual-motor coordination necessary for writing.
  • Ítem
    Acceso Abierto
    “El dibujo infantil para favorecer el desarrollo emocional en niños de educación inicial”
    (Universidad Católica de Cuenca., 2024) Zhagui Vera, Viviana Nicole; Curay Banegas, Edgar Rigoberto; 0105751150
    The present research aims to determine the significance of children's drawing in promoting emotional development within early childhood education. The research adopts a qualitative approach, employing bibliographic analysis, description, and non-experimental, inductive-deductive methodology. Through an exhaustive literature review, epistemological foundations were developed regarding the benefits of childhood drawing in the emotional development of children. Psychoanalytic, humanistic, and sociocultural perspectives highlight the potential of scribbling and spontaneous artistic creation to access the turbulent infant psyche, strengthen attachment, convey shared emotional meanings, and stimulate multiple dimensions of development. Furthermore, a critical analysis of empirical evidence enabled the identification of several challenges hindering the adequate development of emotional skills during the preschool stage, such as difficulties in modulating intense emotions, anxiety before certain events, challenging social interaction, somatization of psycho-emotional discomfort, and deficits in assertively communicating subjective needs. Based on these findings, a methodological guide was designed and validated for kindergarten teachers, comprising 13 playful activities to apply drawing for educational purposes, promoting the identification and expression of emotions, their regulation in the face of frustration, introspection, empathy, and positive social interaction skills. The proposal represents a tangible contribution to optimizing the benefits of childhood drawing, usually neglected in contemporary parenting and early education programs, and has been validated by experts.
  • Ítem
    Acceso Abierto
    “Programa Autossori para incentivar la autonomía en niños de nivel inicial”
    (Universidad Católica de Cuenca., 2024) Baculima Castro, Katherine Gissela; Curay Banegas, Edgar Rigoberto; 0107154049
    This study, titled "Autossori Program to Encourage Autonomy in Pre-school Children," had as a study problem the low levels of autonomy observed in 4-year-old children at a local education center to perform basic activities without adult supervision. The objective was to determine the impact of the Autossori program on the development of autonomy in children from pre-school level II. The research employed a mixed approach, descriptive, bibliographic, and field analysis, with a pre-experimental design. An inductive-deductive methodology was used. Initially, the study measured the levels of dependence using a standardized scale. Then, the Autossori program was implemented for four weeks and the levels were finally measured again with the same scale to determine the effectiveness of the pedagogical intervention proposal. The theoretical framework conceptualized the fundamentals of the variables under study, Autossori Program and autonomy, based on Montessori’s ideas. It also outlined ethical considerations applicable to the development of the dependent variable. Regarding the implementation of Autossori, the results revealed encouraging partial reductions in total dependency and some increases in intermediate self-management skills, suggesting the program’s usefulness in enhancing specific adaptive capacities through active and experiential learning. In conclusion, the activities suggested in the proposal demonstrated an improvement in the children’s autonomy, thus confirming the achievement of the research’s stated objective.
  • Ítem
    Acceso Abierto
    El teatro de sombras y su influencia en las habilidades socioafectivas en educación inicial
    (Universidad Católica de Cuenca., 2024) Santos Tacuri, Lizbeth Dayanna; Crespo Crespo, Walter Benigno; 0150037224
    The socio-affective area is a fundamental pillar that requires special attention in the child's development, for which it is necessary to implement artistic activities through shadow theater, enabling children to convey emotions by manipulating silhouettes. However, this strategy is rarely used in educational centers since teachers consider it as a traditional teaching method without analyzing its potential in different areas, especially in the socio-affective development of children. In this context, this research aims to analyze the influence of shadow theater in developing socio-affective skills in early childhood education by implementing a pedagogical intervention involving activities and experiences related to shadow theater. A mixed methodological approach was adopted, using the Social Interaction Skills Test instrument (2016), which was administered to preschool children through a pretest, pedagogical intervention, and posttest. The results indicate an increase in socio-affective skills post-intervention, rising from 56.30% in "never" to 75% in "many times" responses. This confirms the shadow theater's effectiveness in enriching the educational experience and promoting comprehensive socio-emotional development. The conclusions support the integration of artistic practices in early education pedagogy to promote the socio-affective development of children through shadow theater.