Trabajos de Titulación - Enfermería

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  • Ítem
    Acceso Abierto
    Intervenciones de enfermería en la malnutrición de los adultos mayores
    (Universidad Católica de Cuenca., 2024) Juca Mendoza, Jessica Maria; Gordillo León, Evelyn Thalia; Cumbe Guerrero, Karla María; 0106140189; 1105063950
    Introduction: Malnutrition is a pathological condition characterized by deficiencies or excess food intake, leading to a caloric or nutrient imbalance caused by poor eating habits. This condition results in the development of associated pathologies and complications that affect the patient’s physical health and functional ability. Nursing staff must intervene promptly to identify malnutrition and monitor and control the nutritional status of older adults. Objective: To determine the prevalence of malnutrition in the older adult population and identify associated factors, therapeutic approaches, complications, and nursing interventions in their nutrition. Method: A literature review was carried out in scientific databases such as Scopus, PubMed, ProQuest, and Taylor & Francis to gather evidence on several strategies and approaches in nutritional care for this vulnerable population. Results: Malnutrition in older adults is a significant concern with a high prevalence and associated factors such as functional dependence and chronic diseases. Its complications range from weakness to compromised immunity. The therapeutic approach includes a thorough assessment, customized nutritional planning, and multidisciplinary monitoring. Nursing interventions are crucial for monitoring nutritional status, educating on healthy eating habits, and coordinating comprehensive care. Conclusions: Malnutrition is a highly prevalent disease in older adults, often associated with underlying comorbidities. Early therapeutic intervention and efficient nursing interventions can reduce the potential complications in this population. Keywords: Malnutrition, older adults, prevalence, therapeutic approach, interventions, complications, nutritional care, associated factors.
  • Ítem
    Acceso Abierto
    Malos hábitos alimentarios y su impacto en el rendimiento académico en los adolescentes de latinoamerica
    (Universidad Católica de Cuenca., 2024) Merchán Heras, Jessica Karina; Hernandez de la Cruz, Cielo Cecilia; Martínez Ortiz, Mariana Alexandra; 0105789366; 1083555937
    Eating disorders are based on bad eating habits, whether due to excess, lack, poor quality or inadequate meal times. Objective: To conduct a literature review on poor eating habits and their impact on academic performance in Latin American adolescents. Methodology: The research was carried out in the following scientific data platforms: Scopus, PubMed, ProQuest, and SciELO, obtaining 50 scientific documents. Results: The prevalence in the countries with the highest incidence of poor eating habits was Mexico, with 94% of adolescents having poor eating habits; in Honduras, 71.9% consumed junk food, while in Cuba, 29% consumed fruits and vegetables. In Ecuador, adolescents consumed a large amount of junk food; however, in Azogues, 66.3% of young people had low, medium, and high-quality eating habits. Regarding the associated factors, it was found that the most influential are the socioeconomic and educational variables. Concerning the impact of poor eating habits on academic performance, it was identified that adolescents who do not have a poor diet are affected in their academic achievement; as for the therapeutic approach to malnutrition, this should be multidisciplinary. Finally, in nursing interventions, it was recommended to promote nutritional health through lectures and educational programs. Conclusions: Poor eating habits among adolescents in Latin America lead to chronic non-transmittable diseases and the risk of becoming overweight and obese. Keywords: Eating habits, adolescents, nursing, nutrition, Latin America.
  • Ítem
    Acceso Abierto
    Insuficiencia renal en adultos mayores
    (Universidad Católica de Cuenca., 2024) Sanchez Chillogalli, Kevin Paúl; Toalongo Saltos, Janeth Esperanza; 0705530681
    Introduction: According to the World Health Organization, renal insufficiency is a health condition in which the kidneys cannot properly filter waste and excess fluids from the blood. Objective: To conduct a literature review on "Renal Insufficiency in older adults." Method: A descriptive bibliographic analysis was conducted using a narrative approach, structured with scientific articles obtained from the following databases: SciELO, Dialnet, Medigraphic, Redalyc, PubMed, health institutional websites, and the Spanish Society of Nephrology. Results: In older adults, Chronic Kidney Disease has a higher global prevalence among men at 14.11%, compared to 13.6% in women. The most predisposing risk factors include older age, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and family history. Common complications include anemia, immune system alterations, chronic inflammation, osteodystrophy, and hormonal imbalances. Within the therapeutic approach, the following are utilized: dialysis, dietary control, and pharmacological treatment, which includes finerenone, canakinumab, pentoxifylline, statins, (SGLT2 inhibitors), and the combination of angiotensin receptor blockers and neprilysin inhibitors. Nursing interventions encompass education, a humanistic approach, guidance throughout treatment, and primary care such as hand hygiene, use and handling of protective barriers, and monitoring physiological indicators. Conclusion: Chronic kidney disease is a common condition in adults with various factors that may influence its development. The significant role of nursing staff throughout the patient care process is emphasized. Keywords: kidney failure, elderly, prevalence, treatment, nursing care
  • Ítem
    Acceso Abierto
    Alteraciones nutricionales en escolares de 6 a 12 años de edad en América Latina
    (Universidad Católica de Cuenca., 2021) Arcentales Landi , Karen Liseth; Cumbe Guerrero, Karla María; 0106353428
    Introduction: School-age is a stage of growth and development, where nutrition plays an important role; children need nutrients that cover the nutritional requirements of the organism, as well as, the daily energy expenditure. A deficient diet in quantity, quality, and unbalanced places the child in a situation of vulnerability to present nutritional alterations and consequent morbidity in adulthood, thus decreasing the quality of life of the individual. Objective: To determine which nutritional alterations occur at school age, associated factors, nutritional assessment methods, therapeutic approach, and nursing intervention in Latin America. Methodology: A literature review was made of documents published in scientific databases during the last five years in both Spanish and English, related to nutritional problems school children have. Results: From the review of articles, malnutrition, overweight, and obesity were identified as the main nutritional disorders; socioeconomic, environmental, and sociodemographic factors are associated with these pathologies. As a method of nutritional evaluation, the WHO proposes BMI in children from two years of age; assessment, diagnosis, and interventions (promotion, prevention, rehabilitation, and control) in the child, family and community are part of the therapeutic approach and nursing intervention. Conclusion: Timely diagnosis, adequate treatment, and intervention aimed at correcting nutritional alterations in children, in their home, school, and community environment allow the control and reduction of school children with nutritional problems, improving their quality of life. Keywords: school children, nutrition, malnutrition, undernutrition, overweight, obesity
  • Ítem
    Acceso Abierto
    Infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud en pacientes hospitalizados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos
    (Universidad Católica de Cuenca., 2021) Martínez Ojeda, Jonnathan Oswaldo; Lazo Pillaga, Pablo Isaias; 0106770597
    Introduction: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are defined as complications arising during the patient's hospitalization period in the intensive care unit owing to the patient's critical condition and the devices used in treatment. Objective: To collect relevant information from a search of scientific papers on healthcare-associated nosocomial infections. Methodology: The research was descriptive, different high-impact scientific databases, such as Scopus, PubMed, ProQuest, Redalyc, Scielo, and Researchgate published from 2016 to the present were inquired. A total of 38 field articles, 5 review articles, 1 indexed book, and 6 articles corresponding to the World Health Organization, Ministry of Public Health, and Ecuadorian Institute of Social Security were included. Results: the prevalence of nosocomial infections presented a high percentage in the countries of Chile, Peru, and Ecuador in 2018. Several factors can trigger infections such as advanced age, chronic diseases, and the use of invasive devices; however, certain preventive measures can be applied such as proper handwashing, knowledge of guidelines and protocols for invasive procedures. Conclusion: Patients who are admitted to a hospital unit are at high risk of contracting an HAI; therefore, the entire health care team must follow certain guidelines for the prevention of this adverse event. Keywords: prevalence, risk factors, causal agent, nursing interventions, nosocomial infections