Trabajos de Titulación - Agronomía

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  • Ítem
    Acceso Abierto
    Evaluación agronómica y de calidad de las diferentes variedades de tomate de árbol (solanum betaceum. Cav)
    (Universidad Católica de Cuenca., 2024) Quichimbo Llivicura, John David; González Rojas, Juan Carlos; 0106716905
    The tamarillo fruit (Solanum betaceum) is an Andean fruit tree with great potential for intensive production. However, its yield can be affected by various diseases, such as Purple Top, currently present in at least 50% of the producing areas, decreasing national production. In this study, possibly promising materials were evaluated, with agronomic and health characteristics enabling the development of genetic lines with greater resistance to these biotic factors. To accomplish this, the fruit quality and the reaction to diseases of tamarillo populations derived from the cross between S. betaceum and S. unilobum during their first production cycle were established. These materials from the towns of Píllaro, Tumbaco, Bullcay, and Tandapi were compared to the commercial cultivar known as “Orange Giant.” Yield variables, days to flowering, soluble solids, flavor relationship, fruit shape, pH, titratable acidity, color, browning, and resistance to diseases, such as Chlorosis, Foliage Virus, and Witches’ Broom, were analyzed. The materials that presented the best performance for yield were Píllaro 5-69 with an estimated 1000g per harvest, flowering after 210 days; Píllaro 5, soluble solids; Píllaro 1 with 13.9% °brix, pH of 3.88 for Píllaro 4, titratable acids for Bullcay 4 with the value of 0.336% citric acid, flavor ratio of 50.2 for the Píllaro 4 population, height for Bullcay 1 -134 with 148 cm, Bullcay fruit weight 9-77 with 137.86g and resistance to Bullcay diseases 1-134 with an average attack level 1. Keywords: Tamarillo, genetics, populations, resistance, variables, promising materials, performance, diseases.
  • Ítem
    Acceso Abierto
    Evaluación del cultivo de fresa (Fragaria sp.) en un sistema semihidropónico con dos sustratos y aplicación de microorganismos benéficos
    (Universidad Católica de Cuenca., 2024) Guzhñay León, Mateo Sebastian; Vazquez Vazquez, Jacinto Enrique; 0107138810
    Strawberry cultivation aims to reduce the use of chemicals through innovative techniques that minimize environmental impact, optimizing spaces to ensure high-quality fruit without toxic residues. The goal was to assess strawberry cultivation (Fragaria sp.) in a semi-hydroponic system with two substrates and the application of beneficial microorganisms for up to 90 days in the greenhouse at the Postgraduate campus of the Catholic University of Cuenca. The research was an experimental study with a completely randomized design involving eight treatments and three replications, totaling 24 experimental units with 16 plants each. The evaluation focused on substrates, beneficial microorganisms, and pellets. Dependent variables included plant height, number of leaves, stolons, flowers, brix degrees, yield, and substrate moisture. Statistical analysis was conducted using the software packages InfoStat and R-Studio. The results showed that T5, T6, T7, and T8 had the highest averages in height, number of leaves, stolons, flowers, and yield variables. In terms of brix degrees, T2 had the best average. Additionally, the application of beneficial microorganisms (BMOs) and humus pellets positively affected on these treatments. On the other hand, the peat and rice husk substrate showed the highest moisture retention. In conclusion, the substrate factor (peat and rice husk) was crucial in achieving the best results in the productive parameters. Applying BMOs and humus pellets did not significantly influence any evaluated variable but were crucial for the peat and rice husk substrates. Keywords: Humus pellets, beneficial microorganisms, Semi-hydroponics, Yield, Strawberry, Cultivation.
  • Ítem
    Acceso Abierto
    Efecto de bioles maduros a base de suero de leche en el cultivo de fresa bajo invernadero
    (Universidad Católica de Cuenca., 2024) Sánchez González, Carla Aracely; Vázquez Vázquez , Jacinto Enrique; 0302898325
    The growing demand for food and conventional agriculture negatively impacts human and soil life. This research aims to evaluate the effect of foliar application of mature biols based on whey with beneficial microorganisms, mountain microorganisms, or guinea pig manure on productive parameters of strawberry plants (Fragaria sp.) grown under greenhouse conditions. Quantitative experimental research was conducted with a completely randomized block design with four treatments and five replications to give 20 experimental units of 32 strawberry plants of the Monterrey variety, taking ten plants as a sample. The biols were applied at a dose of 80 cc/liter of water once a week for 246 days, identified as: (T1) biols with MOBs obtained from the human flesh plant, (T2) mountain MOBs, (T3) guinea pig manure, and (T4) control. The Analysis of Variance of the statistical program InfoStat was used to analyze the results. The variables of the number of leaves, stolons, and flowers did not show differences between treatments, but there were differences between days. The production variable showed differences; the treatment with the highest mean was T3 with 80.2 g/plant, and it is the only one that allows the recovery of the additional investment caused by the cost of biols and their application. It is concluded that using biols based on whey positively affects agriculture, guaranteeing sustainability in the production of strawberries under greenhouses.
  • Ítem
    Acceso Abierto
    Adaptabilidad del hibrido de maíz P4021 con tres densidades de siembra en el cantón Oña, provincia del Azuay
    (Universidad Católica de Cuenca., 2024) Ullauri Sandoval, Marco Esteban; Vázquez Vázquez, Jacinto Enrique; 010455117
    Corn stands out as the sole cereal suitable for human and animal consumption. Climate change-related alterations suggest the search for alternative animal feed. This research aimed to assess the effects of planting density on the agronomic performance of the P4021 corn hybrid in the Oña canton, Azuay province. A Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used, consisting of four treatments and four replicates, with a total of 16 experimental units of 12 m2 each across a 448 m2 area. Four planting densities —20, 40, 60, and 80 cm between plants, all at 60 cm between furrows— were tested, with two seeds dibbled per hole. The results revealed that planting density significantly impacts the agronomic performance of P4021 corn. Although no significant differences were observed on variables like height and leaf count, there were statistical differences in the variable weight per treatment (kg), highlighting the T1 treatment (40 cm between plants) with a mean of 27.6 kg. The cost analysis considers the T1 treatment as the optimal choice for planting this hybrid, compared to the control treatment (T4). In conclusion, planting density affects Hybrid P4021 cultivation, with 40 cm between plants yielding the best results in terms of profitability in the cost of production analysis, resulting in a 170% increase, making the T1 treatment ideal for corn silage.
  • Ítem
    Acceso Abierto
    Evaluación del efecto de cuatro combinaciones hormonales, dos concentraciones de medio en la micropropagación in vitro de tres cultivares de anturio (anthurium andreanum)
    (Universidad Católica de Cuenca., 2024) Guzhñay Leon, Fabricio Ivan; Gonzalez Rojas, Juan Carlos; 0104973714
    Anthurium andreanum is an ornamental plant of great popularity and acceptance in the floricultural sector due to the shape of its foliage and showy flowers. Unfortunately, conventional sexual and asexual propagation methods are not practical to achieve massive multiplication of this species. Therefore, this research aimed to evaluate the effect of four hormonal combinations, two concentrations of Murashige and Skoog (MS) culture medium, on the in vitro micropropagation of White, Pink, and Orange A. andreanum cultivar (cv.). In consequence, two protocols for disinfection of explants from leaves were tested; the first treatment constituted of 70% Ethanol for 30sec, 0.5% NaClO for 15 min; the second treatment was 70% Ethanol for 1 min, 1 and 0.5% NaClO, for 5 and 15 min respectively. The result was that disinfection protocol number one presented tolerable levels of contamination (20.04%) and browning (36.33%) compared to protocol number two, which showed exuberant levels of browning (97.11%). The optimal culture medium for the micropropagation of A. andreanum of explants from leaves was 50% MS supplemented with 0.5 mg/L−1 of TDZ and 0.2 mg/L−1 of 2-4 D. The Pink cv. exhibited 90% callus formation and 8.5 shoots/explant, the Orange cv. showed 88.3% callus and 3 shoots/explant, and finally, the White cv. only presented 2% callus formation. In future research, it is recommended to test low concentrations of Kinetin and Naphthaleneacetic Acid in White cv.