Trabajos de Titulación - Biofarmacia

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  • Ítem
    Embargo
    Resistencia a los antimicrobianos por enterobacterias a nivel de América Latina y el Caribe 2013-2023
    (Universidad Católica de Cuenca., 2024) Sarango Berru, Ary Sebastian; Ortiz Tejedor, Jonnathan Gerardo; 1900770122
    Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance is a global problem, also known as the silent pandemic, due to the increasing rate of multi-resistant and pan-resistant bacteria. Enterobacteria are important to this problem because they are the most common at the hospital and community level and can produce beta-lactamase enzymes that inhibit beta-lactam antibiotics. Objective: To report the beta-lactam antibiotics with the highest efficacy against beta-lactamase enzyme-producing enterobacteria and the incidence of these enterobacteria in Latin America from 2013 to 2023. Methodology: A systematic review was carried out using the PRISMA method and sources such as PAHO, SciELO, Redalyc, PubMed, and the Google Scholar metasearch engine, collecting 69 documents and maintaining seven based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Based on the different studies, it was found that the enterobacteria with antimicrobial resistance and the highest incidence in hospitals are E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and Enterobacter spp., and the beta-lactam antibiotics with higher efficacy against beta-lactamase enzymes are Imipenem and Meropenem; however, it has also begun to lose its effectiveness, causing a more drastic alternative treatment to be recommended, such as colistin. Conclusion: In Latin American hospitals, a large number of cases of bacterial infections produced by enterobacteria with multi-resistance to beta-lactams can be observed, mainly caused by patient self-medication, which, despite efforts to control the sale of these medications, continues to exist a high rate of enterobacteria with Antimicrobial resistance (AMR).
  • Ítem
    Acceso Abierto
    Implementación de sistema para el control de inventario del laboratorio de tecnología farmaceútica de la facultad de bioquímica y farmacia de la Universidad Católica de Cuenca
    (Universidad Católica de Cuenca., 2023) Johnson Peláez, Katherine Viviana; Vacuilima Villa, Lisseth Paola; Moncada Angulo, Ruth Elizabeth; 0106492523; 0106946668
    INTRODUCTION: In Ecuador, inventories are fundamental to satisfy operations and to obtain higher profits, better management, and planning. For this reason, this study aims to implement an inventory control system in the pharmaceutical technology laboratory because the manual handling of the inventory prevented its correct control and the development of other activities. OBJECTIVE: To implement an inventory control system in the pharmaceutical technology laboratory of the Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the Catholic University of Cuenca. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The design of this research is qualitative. The descriptive method was used; the information utilized for the development is based on a manual inventory of the laboratory staff. RESULTS: The inventory control system is beneficial for the automation of the stock, which will help to analyze the procedures and regulations to be followed to obtain improvements. CONCLUSION: Implementing f an inventory control system is an essential step to optimize processes and improve the laboratory environment; it is through monitoring and management that the timely availability of resources can be ensured.
  • Ítem
    Solo Metadatos
    Identificación de staphylococcus aureus en el área de hospitalización en el Hospital Aida León de Rodríguez Lara, Girón - Azuay
    (Universidad Católica de Cuenca., 2023) Caldas Caldas, Glenda Nicole; Puglla Macas, Elizabeth Tatiana; Ochoa Coronel, Eduardo Maciel; 0106030695; 1900872241
    Staphylococcus aureus is a microorganism that, due to its virulence and resistance to antibiotics, causes hospital and community diseases. The infections it causes generally occur in hospitalized patients, but also in healthy people, leaving severe consequences. Objective: To identify Staphylococcus aureus through microbiological tests from swabs in the hospitalization area of the Aida León de Rodríguez Lara Hospital. Methodology: The study was carried out on 50 samples taken from different surfaces in 7 hospital areas. The inclusion criterion was to consider the surfaces in more significant contact with the personnel working in the institution and with the patients, while the exclusion criterion was to consider the surfaces that are not in greater contact with the personnel working in the institution and with the patients. Results: From 50 samples taken from different hospital areas, 35 positive samples were identified as positive for Staphylococcus aureus, representing 70% of the samples by conventional microbiological techniques. Conclusion: The presence of Staphylococcus aureus was quantified by microbiological tests, and it was determined that the highest percentage of presence of this microorganism is in the isolation section of the hospitalization area; therefore, strict compliance with biosafety standards is recommended to avoid possible infections and complications in patients and staff.
  • Ítem
    Solo Metadatos
    Interacción farmacocinética entre benzodiacepinas y antihipertensivos
    (Universidad Católica de Cuenca., 2023) Placencia Torres, Ilian Mariel; Blandin Lituma, Paula Eliana; 1727619163
    Introduction: Pharmacokinetic interactions among drugs can impair therapeutic efficacy by interfering with membrane transporter proteins, compromising the proper action of drugs within the body. In older adults, combining benzodiazepines, psychotropics, and antihypertensives is common due to concurrent diagnoses or lack of knowledge. However, this coadministration can lead to severe side effects such as dizziness, vomiting, and respiratory depression. Although not a common medical practice, many older adults use anxiolytics, antihypertensives, and behavioral regulators. Objective: The main objective of this study was to characterize the information available on pharmacokinetic interactions between benzodiazepines and antihypertensives within the scientific literature. Methodology: An exhaustive literature review was conducted using databases such as Scopus, PubMed, SciELO, Web of Science, LILACS, and ProQuest. One hundred and fifteen articles published in Spanish and English between 2017 and 2023 were included. The search focused on pharmacokinetic concepts concerning the interaction between benzodiazepines and antihypertensives. Results: The review revealed that combining benzodiazepines and antihypertensives can elicit adverse reactions and affect pharmacokinetic processes in humans, particularly among older adults, who are highly prone to polymedication. Conclusion: The pharmacokinetic interaction between benzodiazepines and antihypertensives can cause enzymatic blockage and metabolic imbalance in the body. Although unusual for cardiovascular disease, coadministration is frequent in older adults. This research highlights the significance of careful medical prescription and monitoring of drug interactions, especially within this population, to prevent adverse effects and enhance therapy.
  • Ítem
    Solo Metadatos
    Diagnóstico de sars-cov-2 mediante las pruebas de anticuerpos cuantitativos e hisopado antígenos.
    (Universidad Católica de Cuenca., 2023) Vacacela Suquilanda, Yessenia de los Angeles; Zhingre Suárez, Alicia Esperanza; 1104582315
    Introduction COVID-19 disease has caused significant health problems worldwide. In 2019, the first infection with the new coronavirus was reported in Wuhan, China, and the virus spread rapidly. WHO (World Health Organization) reported about 629 million cases and 6.5 million deaths by November 2022. One year after the first reported case in Ecuador, the Secretariat for Risk Management published that 327,325 positive cases and 16,780 deaths were recorded. Objective: To compile relevant information for SARS-CoV-2 detection through quantitative antibody and antigen tests. Methodology: A literature review was conducted. The search strategy included indexed databases, articles, reviews, and scientific journal reports from 2019-2022. Results: Serological tests alone should not be used as diagnostic tools to determine severe cases in healthcare, as the presence of antibodies cannot be detected at the early stage of the disease, whereas antigen testing has a higher specificity and sensitivity than serological testing, i.e., it can detect the viral genome at the onset of infection. Conclusions: The results suggest that the two tests mentioned in the review are a good option regarding simplicity, speed, and cost. However, there are different aspects that the health professional should consider.