- ÍtemAcceso AbiertoPrevalencia de neumonía adquirida en la comunidad en niños menores de 5 años en el Ecuador:(Universidad Católica de Cuenca, 2023) Guasco Loja, Ana Noemi; Regalado Vázquez, Sandra Maribel; 0302721584Introduction: Community-acquired pneumonia is a pathology of infectious or non-infectious origin with an acute or chronic acquired nature, representing one of the main problems of Public Health in children under five years of age globally. Moreover, it constitutes the first cause of mortality due to acute infections in developing countries, and its prevalence is the object of study in health systems worldwide. Objective: To describe the prevalence of community-acquired pneumonia in Ecuador during the last five years, carrying out a systematic review as a contribution to child health. For the research development, publications were searched in databases such as PubMed, Scielo, Medes, Elsevier, and Medscape, and institutional consultation repositories including Space. Eligibility criteria: Scientific articles, clinical trials, and third and fourth-level degree projects published within the last five years, both in Spanish and English, were chosen. Study evaluation and abstract methods: Articles were evaluated using the PRISMA methodology. Results: From 282 publications found; 15 valid articles were selected. Limitations: The main limitation was the lack of global studies at the Ecuadorian level regarding pediatric community-acquired pneumonia; the articles considered for the critical review contain only local data. Conclusions: The prevalence of community-acquired pneumonia in pediatric ages reaches 21-65% of the hospital populations investigated. Keywords: Pneumonia, prevalence, pediatric, community.
- ÍtemAcceso AbiertoCovid 19 y su incidencia en enfermedades crónicas degenerativas:(Universidad Católica de Cuenca, 2023) Solano Aguaiza, Nina Pacari; Agualema Zhau, Jennyfer Francisca; Espadero, Gabriela; 0350003026; 0303013213Introduction: COVID-19 affected the entire population to a greater or lesser extent. Mortality risks were high for specific groups of older people, with a higher risk for individuals with comorbidities related to degenerative illnesses, due to their high mortality risk. Knowledge of the main complications in these cases allows nursing personnel to prevent worse prognoses. Objective: To systematize relevant information based on evidence about COVID-19 and its incidence in chronic degenerative diseases. Method: A systematic literature review was carried out to present a qualitative research approach based on the PRISMA method. A systematic search of publications of the last five years was carried out in databases of indexed journals such as Scopus, Medline, SciELO, and university repositories Results: A total of 20 publications were obtained related to COVID-19 and the chronic degenerative diseases that presented the highest risk in infected patients: diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular problems, and obesity. Conclusions: It was concluded that for nursing practice, it is vital to know the risks inherent in comorbidities in patients infected with COVID-19. Cardiovascular problems and complications were frequent in most of the cases registered. There was a high risk of mortality in patients with diabetes and obesity, with 50% mortality rate. In these cases, it is necessary to provide early attention to avoid mortality prognosis. Keywords: COVID-19, comorbidities, chronic degenerative diseases.
- ÍtemAcceso AbiertoHábitos alimentarios en adultos mayores en Ecuador:(Universidad Católica de Cuenca, 2023) Muñoz Yaguachi, Ana Lucia; Solano Aguaisa, Laura Veronica; Rojas Verdugo , Erica Paola; 0350013330; 0302047618Introduction. Nutritional illnesses caused by poor nutrition are central to the incidence of multimorbidity, causing chronic diseases or disabilities. Its prevalence increases in elderly populations, making correct habits and lifestyles necessary to achieve an active and satisfactory old age. Objective. Evaluate the quality of life and eating habits of older adults in Ecuador. Method. For the development of the research, the PRISMA method and the databases Elsevier, PubMed, Redalyc, MedLine, and Scopus were used. The information collected was subjected to eligibility criteria to obtain relevant studies. Result. Approximately 145 studies of interest were collected; after a process of screening for eligibility, 21 articles of importance for systematic review were identified. Conclusion. It was found that older adults in Ecuador are subject to poor nutrition conditions due to their eating habits. This situation is especially linked to economic factors, behavior, and emotional state affecting their nutritional condition, leading them to unbalanced diets with little nutritional value. Uncontrolled consumption of processed foods, refined flours, and sugary drinks was demonstrated. This situation puts their health at risk and the manifestation of non-communicable diseases: malnutrition, overweight and obesity. It becomes vital to have the necessary family support and care provided from a holistic perspective, which safeguards the integrity of the health and quality of life of the older person. Keywords: older adult, nutritional status, chronic diseases, eating habits
- ÍtemAcceso AbiertoPrevalencia de cáncer de mama a nivel mundial:(Universidad Católica de Cuenca, 2023) Iñamagua Lala, Britanny Lorena; Chimbo Fajardo, Adriana Isabel; Pogyo Morocho, Marcia Veronica; 0350015012; 0350152864Introduction: Oncological diseases result in a series of pathologies that can appear in the organism of any person, regardless of their sex or chronological age; such conditions involve the anomalistic and uncontrollable growth of the cells in any part of an individual’s anatomy, being able to disseminate gradually to other nearby tissues. Breast cancer is a pathological condition that is notable through its significant prevalence in women, placing itself as the second cause of mortality globally and the first in the Hispanic population. Methodology: The present research is a meta-analysis study of a type of systemic revision, carried out under a qualitative approach, considering 21 publications that were obtained from scientific sources such as Scopus, Medline, SciELO, Redalyc, Lilacs, and other databases from the Catholic University of Cuenca. Results: The prevalence of this disease during the year 2020 affected more than two million women worldwide. Most cases were recorded in the United States, followed by the regions of Latin America, Europe, Africa, and Asia, where it is the principal oncological disease within the feminine population, with a mortality rate that borders on 40 million annual deaths. Conclusions: The population of greatest vulnerability for the development of breast cancer are women of an age that varies between 45-60 years old, residing in urban areas of developing or underdeveloped countries. Keywords: cancer, breast, oncological diseases, prevalence, mortality.
- ÍtemAcceso AbiertoPrevalencia de resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos en infecciones del tracto urinario en el Hospital Homero Castanier Crespo durante el periodo 2021-2022(Universidad Católica de Cuenca, 2023) Vazquez Piña, Erick Damian; Arias Narvaez, Diana Carolina; 0302820832Introduction: bacterial resistance to antibiotics has increased significantly because of its indiscriminate use in both people, plants and animals, which has hindered the specific therapeutic for urinary pathology. Objective: to analyze the scientific literature on bacterial resistance to antibiotics in infections of the urinary tract. Methodology: correspondent to a narrative bibliographic review, through the collection of information through the use of databases, such as Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Dialnet, ResearchGate, SciELO themselves that were used from their introduction to the discussion and conclusions. Results: urinary tract infection is a global problem of great relevance that is of importance because of its resistance to the antibiotics most frequently used for its therapy, the prevalence of bacterial resistance is greater in those bacteria belonging to the gastrointestinal tract such as the case of E. coli and whose condition will be greater in the female gender as opposed to the male gender; studies also show that both in the United States and in developed countries, bacterial resistance has been shown to both ampicillin, amoxicillin / clavulanic ac., cotrimoxazole and ciprofloxacin which exceeds 20% tolerable in its empirical hospitable application. Conclusion: antimicrobial resistance is a growing global problem, whose consequences affect patients with urinary tract infection due to these etiological agents and may imply greater morbidity and mortality without adequate confrontation. Keywords: infections, urinary tract, bacterial resistance, antibacterials.