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  • Ítem
    Acceso Abierto
    Mortalidad por enfermedad cerebrovascular en adultos durante el periodo 2012-2021 en el Ecuador
    (Universidad Católica de Cuenca., 2024) Calle Bermejo, Karla Janneth; Crespo Domínguez, Juan Sebastián; 0106488265
  • Ítem
    Acceso Abierto
    Factores de riesgo que predisponen a infecciones en pacientes posquirúrgicos ingresados en unidad de cuidados intensivos
    (Universidad Católica de Cuenca., 2024) Rivera Grunauer, Israel de Jesús; Crespo Argudo, Karla Marcela; 1501011876
    Introduction: Nosocomial infection management represents one of the most critical challenges in contemporary health care, especially in post-surgical patients requiring intensive care in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). These patients, due to the invasive nature of surgical procedures and their poor health status, face a high risk of contracting infections, which can have severe consequences in their recovery process and well-being. Objective: To know or review the existing documentary evidence on the risk factors that predispose to infections in post-surgical patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. Method: In this study, it was applied the PRIMA 2020 method, Boolean connections, in the following databases: Dialnet, Medigraphic, Dynamed, SciELO, Elsevier, Redalyc, and Academic Medical Journal “Revista SINERGIA”, which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: The results were found based on the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria and the analysis of retrospective studies, descriptive studies, literature reviews, manuals, and clinical practice guidelines. Conclusions: The question posed in this research was objectively answered with the several selected studies, showing that the predisposing risk factors for infections in post-surgical patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit are divided into the following categories: patient-related factors such as chronic diseases, malnutrition, age, and immunosuppression; ICU-related factors such as the degree of contamination; and surgery-related factors (types of surgery). Keywords: postoperative infection, surgical site, surgical techniques, predisposing factors, microorganisms
  • Ítem
    Acceso Abierto
    Complicaciones asociadas al uso del catéter urinario
    (Universidad Católica de Cuenca., 2024) Morales Peñafiel, Paula Andrea; Pérez Ruiz, Ariadna; 0302714621
    Introduction: Complications associated with urinary catheters briefly and concisely describe the repercussions of their use; whether in adult or pediatric patients, their prolonged use is considered a risk factor. Additionally, the types of catheters made of different materials, sizes, and shapes were identified, aiding in selecting the most appropriate catheters according to patient needs and clinical conditions. Moreover, the correct technique for placing the urinary catheter was explained in detail, considering anatomical differences between men and women, as this influences the presence of short- or long-term complications. Objective: To describe the complications that may appear from using urinary catheters. Methods: This study employed a qualitative descriptive design approach that included searching, reading, and analyzing research published between 2018 and 2023 in English and Spanish as part of the theoretical foundation of this research. Results: Thirty articles were analyzed, and the collected data revealed the primary complications related to this process and the treatments to counteract them. Conclusion: Various complications include urinary tract infections associated with catheter use, purple urine bag syndrome, presence of calculi, urinary catheter obstruction, urinary retention, decompression hematuria, iatrogenic injuries such as trauma and urethral stricture, bladder discomfort related to the catheter, urethral erosion, bladder neck dilation, and chronic inflation with the risk of cancer. Keywords: catheter, urinary, complications, probe, infections
  • Ítem
    Acceso Abierto
    Criterios actualizados de sinusitis y otitis en pediatría. Revisión sistemática
    (Universidad Católica de Cuenca., 2024) Sanmartín González , María Belén; Quevedo Crespo , María José; 0302711544
    Respiratory infections are prevalent in pediatrics. Sinusitis is an inflammatory process of the mucosa of the paranasal sinuses of viral, bacterial, or fungal origin. It is estimated that between 0.5 and 2% of sinusitis cases are of bacterial origin, and its incidence predominates in children aged 4 to 7 years. The clinical presentation is characterized by bilateral nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, hyposmia, anosmia, productive cough, and in preschoolers, halitosis, otalgia, and odynophagia. Otitis media is a pathology with a high incidence in children under five years old, caused by inflammation of the middle ear, which presents with symptoms such as otodynia, otorrhea, and other less frequent symptoms, including fever and vomiting. The present work aims to conduct a literature review by collecting articles on the updated criteria for sinusitis and otitis in pediatrics through a comprehensive review of the literature employing a descriptive design and qualitative approach following the PRISMA guidelines, selecting databases, for instance, DynaMed, Google Scholar, UpToDate, PubMed, SciELO, Medigraphic, Cochrane, Pediatric Integral, Spanish Association of Pediatrics, Canadian Pediatric Society, NICE Guidelines, of which (34) files were selected through a flowchart, which helped to filter all the articles found to keep those that met the inclusion criteria. Keywords: pediatric patients, respiratory infections, sinusitis, otitis, incidence, diagnosis, treatment
  • Ítem
    Acceso Abierto
    Cigarrillo electrónico, efectos sobre la salud
    (Universidad Católica de Cuenca., 2024) Palacios Cantos, María Belén; Heredia Cabrera, Gina Catalina; 0301894358
    The electronic cigarette (EC) is a device designed to replace traditional cigarettes. It has raised new health concerns due to the increase in respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurological diseases. Objective: To analyze the toxic effects of electronic cigarette on health. Methodology: This literature review was conducted through compilation, reading, and analysis of a specialized bibliography about the issue, from databases such as PubMed, Taylor & Francis, SciELO, and Elsevier. The SIGN guidelines assessed the articles' evidence level, observing that 44% of the bibliographies were rated from 1+/B to 36% 1++/A. Results: The primary toxic compounds are nicotine, which is a carcinogenic and psychoactive substance, therefore causing alterations at pulmonary, neurological, and cardiovascular levels; carbon monoxide, which produces changes at the cardiac level and generates thrombosis; acrolein modifies systolic and diastolic blood pressure. At the pulmonary level, EC causes the emergence of cases of pneumonia, specifically lipid pneumonia, dyspnea, respiratory failure, and lung cancer. Cardiovascularly, it causes changes in blood pressure, arterial wall hardening, and myocardial infarction. In the mouth, it increases pulp necrosis, dental fractures, and bacterial proliferation. Neurologically, it reduces brain development, short-term memory loss, anxiety, and hyperactivity. Conclusion: EC is harmful to the body, modifying the tissue of various organs and systems, creating optimal conditions for the onset of multiple diseases and bacterial proliferation and growth. Keywords: electronic cigarette, tobacco, nicotine, pulmonary, effects, vaping